Male infertility is the term used when the man has low or zero sperm count, low sperm motility or low normal forms in his semen sample or he has erectile or ejaculatory dysfunction. Most of the time the cause for the poor semen quality is idiopathic or unknown. However there are occasions when the poor sperms are due to various conditions like varicoceles, swollen veins next to the testes which increases the scrotal temperature leading to low sperm count or reduced motility, previous infections like chlamydia and gonorrhoea leading to scarring and blockages in the epididymis or vas deferens, undescended testes or mumps causing testicular atrophy. Previous vasectomy is a known reason for couple seeking fertility treatment while obesity, tobacco smoking, recreational drugs usage and excessive alcohol consumption can all affect sperm quality. Treatment will depend on the underlying problem, whether it can be corrected, intrauterine insemination or IVF/ICSI if indicated.

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